Kibbie Bonner
Chandler Price

1. Organization level needs analysis
A) examines individuals' training needs.
B) involves examining the role of training, the resources available for training and the level of support.
C) involves identifying the tasks that compose jobs and the KSAOs needed to perform them.
D) should always be the last level of analysis conducted.

2. Which of the following is an organizational symptom indicating that training may be needed?
A) Pay raises have been increasing for the last five years.
B) The T & D budget for next year has not yet been approved.
C) The number of worksite accidents has increased this year.
D) There has not been a training program conducted in six months.

3. Person level needs analysis
A) involves determining which jobs to eliminate when a company is downsizing.
B) focuses on the company's mission and business strategy.
C) should always be conducted after organizational and task analyses.
D) focuses on identifying who needs training and whether employees are ready for training.

4. Task level analysis
A) should always be conducted before an organization analysis.
B) looks at who needs training and whether there is readiness for training.
C) involves identifying tasks and knowledge, skills, and behaviors needed to perform those tasks.
D) looks at how training fits with the business strategy of the company.

5. An “SME” is a
A) Super materials engineer.
B) Subjectivity matter employee.
C) Subject matter expert.
D) Subject materials engineer.

6. Interviewing as a needs assessment technique
A) needs skilled observer environment.
B) Can explore unanticipated issues that come up.
C) only provides information directly related to questions asked.
D) minimizes interruption of work.

7. Observation as a needs assessment technique
A) is too disruptive to the flow of work.
B) can be done by anyone in the company.
C) may affect the performance of those being observed.
D) may generate low response rates.

8. Questionnaires used for needs assessment
A) allow for the collection of a large amount of information.
B) are one of the most costly techniques for collecting data.
C) are a highly objective source of information.
D) have the main disadvantage of providing information that is often outdated.

9. The needs assessment process examines all of these except
A) quality analysis.
B) person analysis.
C) task analysis.
D) organizational analysis.

10. Using information from other companies and their best practices is known as
A) empowerment.
B) benchmarking.
C) outsourcing.
D) organizational analysis.

11. In companies where training and development plays a strategic role in achieving business goals,
A) less company dollars are invested in training initiatives.
B) training is more likely to be structured as a corporate university or virtual training organization.
C) Kane's theorem should be adopted.
D) support of managers for training initiatives is inconsequential.

12. A request for proposal (RFP)
A) is a call for suggestions from employees on how to spend training dollars.
B) outlines for potential consultants the training services the company is seeking as well as the timeline, funding, etc.
C) is a call during training programs for real-life examples.
D) provides no way to evaluate the various consultants who submit proposals.

13. Research indicates that
A) peer and manager support for training is critical to the success of the training.
B) peer and manager support has little influence on training outcomes.
C) managers have little or nothing to do with the transfer of training.
D) organizational analysis is actually often unnecessary.

14. When utilizing external consultants in the training process, it is important to
A) choose small consultants, because they are cheaper.
B) seek consultants with little experience, because then they have no preconceived notions about how the training process should be conducted.
C) consultants based on popularity.
D) ask potential consultants about their experience and for evidence of success.

15. Employees' “readiness” for learning refers to all the following except
A) whether they have reached the appropriate hierarchical level in the company.
B) whether they have the necessary knowledge and skills to learn.
C) whether the work environment will enhance learning.
D) whether they are motivated to learn.

16. The factors that influence individual employee performance include all of the following except
A) personal characteristics.
B) employee preferences for needs assessment methods.
C) incentives.
D) feedback.

17. Basic skills
A) are the skills necessary to perform more sophisticated job skills and to learn the content of training programs.
B) are impossible to assess because employees don't want to tell.
C) include synthesis and evaluation skills.
D) have no bearing on the ability to learn training content.

18. In context of the chapter, which of the following influences job performance and ability to learn in training programs?
A) Social behavior
B) Cognitive ability
C) Motivation
D) Education

19. Readability refers to the:
A) understanding of the written materials.
B) cognitive ability of the writer.
C) difficulty level of written materials.
D) training skills required to read.

20. Which of the following is(are) true of the Georgia-Pacific training?
A) People had to score a seventh-grade reading level to be eligible to attend training programs.
B) There was no charge for the training classes.
C) Employees were required to start basic skills training immediately after the assessment.
D) First step involved convincing employees to undergo training.

21. is employees’ belief that they can successfully perform their job or learn the content of the training program.
A) Self-efficacy
B) Self-motivation
C) Cognitive ability
D) Problem solving

22. Lack of proper tools and equipment, materials and supplies, budgetary support, and time are all examples of:
A) internal constraints.
B) social constraints.
C) situational constraints
D) technical constraints.

23. When an employee exhibits a performance deficiency,
A) training is, without exception, the solution.
B) the company needs new equipment.
C) poor management would not be considered as a cause.
D) The cause may be internal factors other than a lack of the right KSAs.

24. “KSA” stands for
A) Knowledge, strengths, and attributes.
B) Knowing, survival, and affects.
C) Knowledge, skills, and abilities.
D) Knowing, sharing, and attempting.

25. Job analysis is different from task analysis in which of the following ways?
A) Job analysis is not needed in redesigning training curriculum.
B) Task analysis is not needed in redesigning training curriculum.
C) Task analysis identifies the necessary KSAs required for job performance.
D) SMEs are not used in task analysis.

True/False Questions

26. A needs assessment should be optional when designing a training program.
27. Not all pressure points require a need for training only lack of knowledge can be addressed by training.
28. A task analysis involves five steps.
F 4 steps
29. Subject matter experts are trainees that can pass out of the training program.
False, SME are employees, academics, managers, technical experts, trainers, and even customers or suppliers who are knowledgeable in regard to training issues including tasks to be performed, KSA, necessary equipment; and conditions under which the tasks have to be performed.
30. Mid-level managers help to determine if training is related to the company's business strategy and what type of training is to be implemented.
False Upper-level managers do this and mid-level managers mainly focuses on how much they want to devote on their training, the type of employees to receive training, and what training can make a difference in their product.

31. Job incumbents are employees who are in training for a job.
False performing the job
32. Focus groups are a type of SME interview that involves a face-to-face meeting with groups of employees in which the questions that are asked relate to specific training needs.
33. Benchmarking is sharing information and using the best practices of other companies.
34. Person characteristics refer to the employees' knowledge, skill, ability, and attitudes.
False, it is the ability, beliefs, attitudes, and motivation

35. Cognitive ability includes three dimensions: verbal comprehension, qualitative ability, and innumeracy.
False, quantitative ability and reasoning ability
36. A readability assessment usually involves analysis of sentence length and word difficulty.
37. Self-efficacy can be increased by letting employees fail so they can pick themselves up and try again.
False, 1. it can be increased by letting employees know that the purpose of training is to try to improve performance rather than to identify areas in which employees are incompetent. 2. Providing as much information as possible about the raining program and purpose of training prior to the actual training. 3. Showing employees the training success of their peers who are now in similar jobs. 4. Providing employees with feedback that learning is under their control and they have the ability and the responsibility to overcome any learning difficulties they experience in the program.
38. Self-efficacy is the employee's belief that he/she can successfully master the training content or perform a task.
39. Norms are acceptable standards of behavior for work group members.
40. Situational constraints, including lack of necessary equipment, tools, materials, supplies, time, and other resources, may influence employee performance.
False, their performance will be inadequate
41. If employees do not believe that the company does not adequately reward positive performance, they will probably try to work even harder and hope that rewards will be increased in the future.
False, they will be unlikely to meet performance standards even if they have the necessary knowledge, skill, or attitudes.

42. Performance deficiencies may be a function of knowledge or skill needs, motivational problems, and/or poor work design.
43. To complete tasks on the job employees need to implement KSAO's.
44. A competency refers to areas of personal capability that enable employees to successfully their jobs by achieving outcomes or accomplishing tasks.
45. Competency modeling is a new approach to needs assessment that focuses on identifying personal capabilities including: knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and personal characteristics.

Answer: True Difficulty: Easy Page: 118

Essay Questions

46. What is a pressure point? Give some examples of pressure points.

legislation, lack of basic skills, poor performance, new technology, customer requests, changes in customer preference, job redesign, new products, higher performance standards, and new jobs.

47. Describe three methods that might be used to gather information about the tasks involved in the job of a supermarket cashier and what knowledge, skills, abilities and working conditions are required to perform those tasks. What would be the strengths and
weaknesses of these methods?

Observation involves analyzing employees’ job performance by watching them directly.

Questionnaires are a paper and pencil or on-line instrument that asks employees questions regarding their work, their coworkers, the work environment, etc.

Interviewing involves asking questions typically face-to-face and one-on-one to gather data, although interviews can also be conducted with a group. Focus groups are a type of SME interview that involves a face-to-face meeting with groups of SMEs in which the questions that are asked relate to specific training needs

48. When is training the best solution for a performance problem that has been identified?

49. What are the primary steps of a task analysis?

1. Select the job or jobs to be analyzed.
2. Develop a preliminary list of tasks performed on the job by interviewing and observing expert employees and their managers and talking with others who have performed a task analysis
3. Validate or confirm the preliminary list of tasks. This step involves having a group of Subject matter expert (job incumbents, manager, etc) answer in a meeting or on a written survey several questions regarding tasks.
4. Once the tasks are identified, it is important to identify the knowledge, skills, or abilities necessary to successfully perform each task. This information can be collected through interviews and questionnaires.

50. What is a competency and what is a competency model? How is a competency model developed?

A competency refers to areas of personal capability that enable employees to successfully perform their jobs by achieving outcomes or accomplishing tasks.
Competency modeling is a new approach to needs assessment that focuses on identifying personal capabilities including: knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and personal characteristics. Competencies model provides descriptions of competencies that are common for an entire occupational group, level of jobs, or an entire organization. The model is developed by first identifying the job or position then identify any changes for the business strategy. Next, identify effective and ineffective performance by analyzing one or more outstanding performers, surveying persons that are familiar with the job (SME), investigating benchmark data. Finally, validate the model.